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Measuring Machine for Mechanical Properties of Garments

Lukas Pfarr

Lukas Pfarr

Modern technologies provide access to realistic virtual garment simulation in all practical sceneries of life. This mighty method comes along with eclectic advantages and immense potential for the future textile industry. Designers obtain instantaneous feedback of both aesthetic and functional properties of their drafts. Thus the entire development procedure becomes way more time and cost saving, leading to the superior possibility, to put even more focus on the aimed target of optimizing products.

Mechanical and tribological material properties are the leading input parameters for the simulation of virtual 3D garments. Extensive analysis of preliminary studies featured the bending stiffness, the hysteresis of the shear- as well of the tensile-test, the frictional behaviour and the surface weight as characteristic attributes of a textile. Enhanced quality of the parameter acquisition is crucial for the excellence of the simulation results. To truly support the future textile industry in its entirety and to encourage a broadband usage of garment simulations, a universal measuring machine for the quantification of all relevant properties is required urgently.

The single experiments are kinematically decoupled in the horizontal orientated construction. To go easy on resources, the hysteresis of the shear- and the tensile-test are determined in just one setup. Therefore the shear-test is conducted equivalently to an uniaxial tensile-test in bias-direction of the fibres. The variable clamping force ensures a non-destructive examination of the tested probe. For the bending test, the textile is loaded by its own weight,
working as a cantilever. The evaluation of the corresponding bending stiffness is accomplished via spatial triangulation followed by digital image processing. The primary friction test method via inclined plane turned out to be rather unsuitable if applied to textiles. Consequently an optimized friction unit was developed, which measures the normal- and the shear-force concurrently. The outcome of this experiment is the characterisation of the static as well of dynamic friction for arbitrary friction partners.

A broad variety of textiles had been analysed in order to validate the machine's functions. Manifold combinations of base materials, production processes and surface conditions were tested. The obtained results of the shear- and tensile-test include among others revealing insights in the influence of regeneration and humidity on the material behaviour. The conducted friction tests showed that the linear friction model has to be extended further to key parameters. Thus the acting contact force has to be considered in textile to textile friction and additional the skin hydration in the case of textile to skin friction.

Figure 1: Rendering of the universal loading machine

Figure 1: Rendering of the universal loading machine

Keywords: garment properties, universal measuring machine, fabric assessment, cloth simulation

The circulation of the project work is restricted from April 25th, 2017 for a period of 2 years.

April 20th, 2017