Design Thinking — Epistemic Plurality in Management and Organization
Robert M. Bauer & Ward M. Eagan
So Design Thinking is neither just design, nor just thinking: it is both something more and, something less, than designing and thinking. This paper outlines ‘Design Thinking’ as a solution oriented generative methodology for creating desired outcomes — and it goes well beyond the making of aesthetically pleasing artifacts and environments. We have outlined a programme of Design Thinking that is fundamentally multi-epistemic using a Jungian typology of ways of knowing (thinking, feeling, sensing and intuiting) that contributes to our understanding of how the best in creative problem solving is achieved. Analytical thinking, a mono-epistemic approach, is shown to be part of and not the opposite of design thinking, and although analytical thinking provides the epistemic underpinning of capital, design thinking represents the epistemology of creative labor. We believe that a more significant adopting of a design thinking stance would be beneficial and could ultimately lead to entire organizations becoming design agents.