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Michael Pammer: "Modeling Religion: Bureaucratic Reform and the Transformation of Popular Piety in the 18th Century", Historical Social Research 19/4 (1994), 4–25.

Abstract: From 1750 to 1790 the Theresian and the Josephinian governments of Austria tried to transform the religious life in the Habsburg lands from the traditional baroque piety to a Reformed Catholicism. This paper examines the reactions of the population to these administrative reforms and its ideological elements. It is based on testaments, a common source in the research on popular piety since the 1960s. The multivariate analysis shows that there was a far-reaching turning away from the baroque forms of piety in the whole population. The changes in the testaments began gingerly in the 1770s, were fastest in the 1780s and ended in the 1790s. As these changes in the sources indicate a transformation of the mentality 30–40 years before, the whole development cannot simply be seen as a transfer of attitudes from an enlightened elite to the masses, but rather as an autonomous process of debaroquization in a country where the counter-reformation had been highly successful in the 17th century.