The reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is crucial due to global warming. A shift of energy production to renewable sources and electrification of the transportation sector are intended to promote the achievement of the global climate goals.
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) show great potential for this purpose. They can be used for both grid storage and applications in electric vehicles, as they have a high-power density and energy efficiency. Regarding the effort needed and environmental impact from the extraction of raw materials for battery production from primary sources, the recycling of end-of-life LIBs is a nonnegotiable obligation and therefore subject to recent research.