The usefulness of mobile devices has increased greatly in recent years allowing users to perform more tasks in a mobile context. This increase in usefulness has come at the expense of the usability of these devices in some contexts. We conducted a small review of mobile usability models and found that usability is usually measured in terms of three attributes; effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. Other attributes, such as cognitive load, tend to be overlooked in the usability models that are most prominent despite their likely impact on the success or failure of an application. To remedy this we introduces the PACMAD (People At the Centre of Mobile Application Development) usability model which was designed to address the limitations of existing usability models when applied to mobile devices. PACMAD brings together significant attributes from different usability models in order to create a more comprehensive model. None of the attributes that it includes are new, but the existing prominent usability models ignore one or more of them. This could lead to an incomplete usability evaluation. We performed a literature search to compile a collection of studies that evaluate mobile applications and then evaluated the studies using our model.
In this paper we discuss the open source process as it relates to accessibility software. Open source is a development model that has shown considerable benefits in a number of application areas. However the nature of accessibility tools and the intended users of such software products raise issues that must be addressed by the developer before users encounter the tools in real world contexts. In this paper we discuss the nature of the open source process, how it functions, and the motivations with regards to participation that developers self-report. We then explain the impact of these elements of the open source process as they relate to adaptive accessibility software. We use some specific examples of issues raised from the adoption of open source via a discussion of the ACCESS Framework, an accessibility engine designed to provide cross-platform accessibility support through plug-ins.
Objective: Almost a third of college students are obese, placing them at risk for adult obesity and its complications. Internet use may be one factor contributing to college student obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine associations of college student internet use with physical activity and fitness. Methods: Older adolescents between 18 and 23 years were recruited from a large university. Using experience sampling method, participants received 6 randomly-timed text message surveys for 7 days. Survey questions assessed whether they were currently online, for how long and current online activities. Participants also completed the International Physical Activity questionnaire and reported their body mass index. Multivariate models assessed the association of internet use with physical activity and fitness. Results: Among 189 participants, the mean age was 18.9 (SD = 0.9), 58.8% were female and most were Caucasian
(90.5%). Greater internet use was associated with fewer days per week of vigorous intensity exercise (p < 0.001). Participants who spent less than 1 hour/day online reported a mean of 3.2 days per week of vigorous intensity exercise (SD = 2.0), those with 3 or more hours online daily reported 1.4 (SD = 2.1). Those who reported internet activities focused on academics reported increased days of vigorous intensity exercise compared to those who reported internet activity focused on social networking sites (p < 0.001). Conclusions: There were no significant associations between internet use time and BMI. Findings suggest that both online time and particular online activities may be associated with decreased vigorous physical activity. Future efforts should consider reframing internet use guidelines for this population around both time and activities.