This thesis proposes a cross-domain reference model of sociotechnical development of sociotechnical systems. The reference model is intended to reveal whether and to which extent sociotechnical concepts, methods, and tools are used for designing sociotechnical systems. In this way, it promotes the knowledge transfer between system designers and provides a collection of development practices including commanalties and differences between various domains. To achieve these goals, existing sociotechnical system developments were analyzed and modeled in order to analyze them regarding their generalizable elements. For the selection of papers, it was particularly important that the development process itself corresponded to a sociotechnical approach. The resulting process reference model should provide a template for future system developments and be applicable across domains. These objectives were evaluated by an independent domain expert. Whilst the reference model was deemed practically applicable across domain boundaries, additional written and verbal information proved helpful for the model's understandability.