It is the ability of modern actuators to interact with their environment and react optimally what makes them smart. This allows on the one side to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption and emissions and on the other side to reach the limits of physics. These limits are an issue for a variety of requirements ranging from power density, speed, force or costs to repeatability, durability and reliability.
These requirements can only be pushed to the limit when the whole system is investigated in the sense of a mechatronic system optimization. Thus both, the individual components and the whole system layout are in the focus of research.
This defines the areas of research