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Christian Doppler Labor VaSiCS

Welcome to the Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mastering Variability in Software-Intensive Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CDL VaSiCS)

The CD Lab aims to conduct applied, basic research focusing on methodological support to master variability in Software-Intensive Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS). A key focus lies in automatically handling variability, such as analyzing existing CPPS artifacts from the design process of CPPS to automatically extract and model variability information and generating and configuring target artifacts, especially to better support system evolution and future changes in software and hardware platforms as well as tools. 

Primetals Technologies, opens an external URL in a new window is our industry partner.

We gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Digital and Economic Affairs, the National Foundation for Research, Technology and Development, and the Christian Doppler Research Association. We also want to explicitly thank our industry partner, Primetals Technologies, and the Upper Austrian government.

Christian Doppler Lab VaSiCS


Johannes Kepler University Linz,
Altenberger Straße 69
4040 Linz


LIT Open Innovation Center (Ground Floor)


Univ. Prof. Dr. Rick Rabiser
Univ. Prof. Dr. Alois Zoitl


+43 732 2468 4363




Publications of the CD Lab VaSiCS


Open Positions and Theses (PR, Bachelor's, Master's)

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Christian Doppler Research Association

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Linz Institute of Technology

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Land Oberösterreich

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Federal Ministry for Digital and Economic Affairs

News & Events

News 19.09.2023

Big Delegation at ETFA Conference in Romania

Last week, the International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA) took place in Sinaia, Romania. The LIT CPS Lab was represented by a 13-member team at the conference, 7 of them CD Lab members. The list of all presented CD Lab papers can be found on our publication page.

What is it like to attend a conference for the first time?

"At the conference, I gave a presentation on possible scenarios that can lead to the Shotgun Surgery bad smell and possible ways to find it. I also presented a poster on this topic," Dunja Zivotin explains. "My initial nervousness quickly disappeared when I noticed the great support in the team. This gave me the necessary confidence and self-assurance to deliver the presentation successfully," the young scientist reports on how she experienced her first conference visit.

What is it like to have attended ETFA for more than the 10th time?

"Every year, ETFA provides a platform for exchange with international researchers. I meet many of the colleagues only once a year at this conference - in personal conversations, for example, new collaboration opportunities or interesting research questions arise. I also enjoy connecting our team members with other researchers," Professor Zoitl says.

How was the overall experience?

"I am very proud of the team. Our team's presentations and posters - in fact, from all 11 presenters - were all excellent and among the best at the conference. The feedback was positive throughout," says Professor Rabiser, excited about his team's successes.

News 31.08.2023

Big in Japan: Presentations at SPLC 2023

Sayyid, Kevin and Rick presented work from the CD Lab VaSiCS at the 27th ACM International Systems and Software Product Line Conference (SPLC 2023) in Tokyo, partly there, partly online.

Sayyid presented Managing Cyber-Physical Production Systems Variability using V4rdiac: Industrial Experiences, an industry full paper which summarizes our experiences with CPPS variability in industry and wrt applying the V4rdiac approach developed in the CD lab to deal with CPPS variability in industry.

Kevin presented the UVL Parser (UVLParser: Extending UVL with Language Levels and Conversion Strategies), a tool which facilitates working with the community-developed Universal Variability Language.

Rick presented results of the SPLC 2023 Industry Variability Challenges Workshop, in which challenges of industry with variability and software product lines were collected.

[Translate to Englisch:] Sayyid at SPLC 2023
News 10.07.2023

9+9=18 (9 more ETFA papers)

Another great success for the CD Lab. After 9 full papers which have already been accepted, 9 further work-in-progress papers have now been accepted at the ETFA 2023 Conference. We congratulate all authors!

Prankur Agarwal, Shubham Sharma, Hafiyyan Sayyid Fadhlillah, Rick Rabiser, Alois Zoitl: Delta Models as a Measurement for Improving the Quality of IEC 61499-based Control Software.

Philipp Bauer, Lisa Sonnleithner, Elene Kutsia, Rick Rabiser, and Alois Zoitl: Using Graph Clustering Algorithms to Modularize IEC 61499 Control Software

Elene Kutsia, Lisa Sonnleithner, Rick Rabiser, and Alois Zoitl: Clone Detection in IEC 61499 using Metainformation

Mainak Majumder, Virendra Ashiwal, Alois Zoitl: Run-time Configuration of the IEC 61499-based PLC-Service Bus via OPC UA.

Mainak Majumder, Bianca Wiesmayr, Alois Zoitl: Extending the OPC UA Companion Specification for an IEC 61499-based Control System.

Tarik Terzimehić Terzimehic, Alois Zoitl: Landscape of Architectural Design Decisions in Industry 4.0.

Bianca Wiesmayr, Midhun Xavier, Alois Zoitl, Valeriy Vyatkin: Generating Portable Test Cases for IEC 61499 FBs from Interface Behaviour Specifications.

Bianca Wiesmayr, Antonio Gutierrez, Alois Zoitl: Towards Integrating Interface Behavior Models for Components of Distributed Control Software.

Dunja Životin, Lisa Sonnleithner, and Alois Zoitl: Bad Smells in IEC 61499-based Control Software: Sniffing out Shotgun Surgery

News 12.06.2023

10 papers accepted at the same time

Staff of the CD Lab VaSiCS is celebrating the acceptance of 10 papers at 2 conferences. Mitarbeiter*innen des CD Labor VaSiCS dürfen aktuell große Publikationserfolge feiern. 9 (of 9 submitted) full papers accepted at ETFA (https://2023.ieee-etfa.org/) + 1 (of 2 submitted) at SPLC  (https://2023.splc.net/). We are very proud of our team!

(ETFA 1/9) Shubham Sharma, Hafiyyan Sayyid Fadhlillah, Antonio Manuel Gutierrez, Rick Rabiser, Alois Zoitl: Modular Control Software Design to Support Mechatronic Variants in IEC 61499

(ETFA 2/9) Hafiyyan Sayyid Fadhlillah, Shubham Sharma, Antonio Manuel Gutierrez, Rick Rabiser, Alois Zoitl: Delta Modeling in IEC 61499: Expressing Control Software Variability in Cyber-Physical Production Systems

(ETFA 3/9) Sandra Greiner, Bianca Wiesmayr, Kevin Feichtinger, Kristof Meixner, Marco Konersmann, Jerôme Pfeiffer, Michael Oberlehner, David Schmalzing, Andreas Wortmann, Bernhard Rumpe, Rick Rabiser, Alois Zoitl: Maturity Evaluation of Domain-Specific Language Ecosystems for Cyber-Physical Production Systems

(ETFA 4/9) Lisa Sonnleithner, Bianca Wiesmayr, Antonio Gutierrez, Rick Rabiser, Alois Zoitl: Complexity of Structured Text in IEC 61499 Function Blocks: A Survey

(ETFA 5/9) Philipp Bauer, Lisa Sonnleithner, Elene Kutsia, Rick Rabiser, Alois Zoitl: Using Tool Support to Visualize and Interact with IEC 61499 Control Software

(ETFA 6/9) Lisa Sonnleithner, Anna-Lena Hager, Kristof Meixner, Alois Zoitl: IEC 61499 Skill-based Distributed Design Pattern

(ETFA 7/9) Tarik Terzimehić, Eddie Groh, Alois Zoitl: Composing Services with SMT-Based Deployment Optimization and Service Merging Heuristic

(ETFA 8/9) Mainak Majumder, Alois Zoitl: A Domain-Driven Design Oriented OPC UA Server Development Methodology for CPPS

(ETFA 9/9) Michael Oberlehner, Andreas Eigner, Manuel Wimmer, Alois Zoitl: Exploring Refactoring Operations for IEC 61499

(SPLC) Hafiyyan Sayyid Fadhlillah, Antonio Manuel Gutierrez Fernandez, Rick Rabiser, Alois Zoitl: Managing Cyber-Physical Production Systems Variability using V4rdiac: Industrial Experiences